Stage art involves many aspects, of which lighting is a very important part. It not only plays the role of lighting, but also integrates more into the cooperation with script and character performance, so as to make the whole stage effect more coordinated. Therefore, the actual lighting work is very complex. Designers or operators often need to have various knowledge, actively cooperate with each station and present the best effect to the audience.
1、 Stage lighting
The role of light in stage art is key and unique. First of all, all performances should rely on light to show to the audience. Other stations such as clothing, characters, photography and props need light to give full play to their characteristics. Secondly, it is not enough for lighting operators to only master electrical technology. They also need to have a certain understanding of optics, dance, performance, art, color, etc. because stage art is an overall effect, lighting should comply with the director's idea and make secondary creation in combination with script and specific performance.
Lighting is the combination of art and technology. It can be said that without lighting, there will be no stage space and time. Generally speaking, the requirements for light distribution should meet four requirements. First, adjust the basic elements such as brightness and color to give the audience a good visual effect; Secondly, design the shape of the performer, present a three-dimensional structure for vision, and fully show the three-dimensional and spatial sense of the object; Moreover, the intensity, orientation and tone of the light should be consistent with the stage performance and the script plot, so as to better set off the emotional changes of the performers; Finally, we should achieve a certain artistic conception and make the stage artistic through various technologies.
2、 Lighting procedure
（1） Arrangement of main light
Main light refers to the dominant light that shows the outline and three-dimensional feeling of the object. It is the main tone of the lighting of the whole stage. The main light is mostly soft. When placing the main light source, we should grasp its height, which is usually slightly higher than the irradiation object, so as to achieve the best effect close to natural light. Too high or too low will affect the stage effect. The determination of the main light should be comprehensively considered in connection with many factors, such as the stage setting, the distance between the character image and the audience, and economic conditions.
（2） Application of auxiliary light
On the stage, only the main light is imperfect, because the main light will have shadows, and the auxiliary light plays the role of auxiliary and lining. The auxiliary light shall use more soft light, and the focusing shall be avoided as far as possible. When distributing light, the light contrast with the main light shall be well controlled. The layout form shall be determined according to the specific conditions of the stage, which can be one group or multiple groups.
（3） Selection of background light
When the main light and auxiliary light are adjusted, they can be matched with appropriate background light to render the atmosphere of the stage, so as to make the stage more coordinated and improve the overall effect. The selection of background light usually depends on the distance between the subject and the background. If the distance is close, the main light can replace the background light; If the distance is far, lamps can be selected separately for light distribution, and do not interfere with the main light.
3、 Spatial light distribution
Different from film and television lighting, stage lighting focuses on the on-site effect. The actors and the audience are in close contact, and the stage is fixed. In the script of the performance, it is often necessary to convert multiple spaces, which is the difficulty of stage performance. In order to enhance the appeal of the story, in addition to the affectionate performance of the actors, it is also necessary to simulate the spaces consistent with the script requirements with the help of sound, light, color, shape and other technologies. Lighting undoubtedly plays a key role. Therefore, in order to achieve good spatial effect, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the stage structure, the placement of props, the drawing of equipment status lights and stage plane section, the measurement of stage height and length, the number of suspenders, the power and operation status of relevant equipment, etc. Generally speaking, time and space are inseparable. In addition to expressing various spaces, the light distribution should also comply with the changes of time, such as the changing weather, which needs to be completed through the continuous conversion of light brightness, tone and filter.
4、 Figure lighting
In stage performance, place, time and characters are the most basic elements, and the development of the plot is usually driven by people, because relatively speaking, time and space are relatively fixed, and the characters are active and the core of the stage. The performance of the characters should be transmitted to the audience through lights, so the lighting of the characters is also very important. The first is the figure's shape, mainly refers to clothing, actions, etc. the lighting must be commensurate with the actor's clothing color. If the color contrast is very large, the audience will look very uncomfortable. The performer's action changes with the plot, and the light should also change. If the action is tight, the light can be dimmed to enhance the effect. During light distribution, the operator shall be familiar with the performance content in advance, understand the performance characteristics of the performer, combine the two, give play to his professional creativity, and let the light change between light and intensity with the joy, anger, sadness and joy of the performer, so as to realize the overall aesthetic feeling of the overall effect of the stage and improve the overall artistic effect of the stage.
Stage performance is very difficult and involves a wide range of contents. Lighting is one of the important parts of its realization. Its role is self-evident. It not only plays the basic lighting function, but also carries the important task of the smooth progress of the whole performance, but also an important factor for the full play of the overall artistic effect of the stage. In order to achieve the artistic stage performance effect, the lighting as power supply equipment and auxiliary props has reflected more and more important value and artistry. In short, any successful performance is inseparable from the lighting work, especially the space and characters.